Archive for the ‘Illness Prevention’ Category
World Renown Heart Surgeon Speaks Out On What Really Causes Heart Disease
We physicians with all our training, knowledge and authority often acquire a rather large ego that tends to make it difficult to admit we are wrong. So, here it is. I freely admit to being wrong. As a heart surgeon with 25 years experience, having performed over 5,000 open-heart surgeries,today is my day to right the wrong with medical and scientific fact.
I trained for many years with other prominent physicians labelled “opinion makers.” Bombarded with scientific literature, continually attending education seminars, we opinion makers insisted heart disease resulted from the simple fact of elevated blood cholesterol.
The only accepted therapy was prescribing medications to lower cholesterol and a diet that severely restricted fat intake. The latter of course we insisted would lower cholesterol and heart disease. Deviations from these recommendations were considered heresy and could quite possibly result in malpractice.
It Is Not Working!
These recommendations are no longer scientifically or morally defensible. The discovery a few years ago that inflammation in the artery wall is the real cause of heart disease is slowly leading to a paradigm shift in how heart disease and other chronic ailments will be treated.
The long-established dietary recommendations have created epidemics of obesity and diabetes, the consequences of which dwarf any historical plague in terms of mortality, human suffering and dire economic consequences.
Despite the fact that 25% of the population takes expensive statin medications and despite the fact we have reduced the fat content of our diets, more Americans will die this year of heart disease than ever before.
Statistics from the American Heart Association show that 75 million Americans currently suffer from heart disease, 20 million have diabetes and 57 million have pre-diabetes. These disorders are affecting younger and younger people in greater numbers every year.
Simply stated, without inflammation being present in the body, there is no way that cholesterol would accumulate in the wall of the blood vessel and cause heart disease and strokes. Without inflammation, cholesterol would move freely throughout the body as nature intended. It is inflammation that causes cholesterol to become trapped.
Inflammation is not complicated — it is quite simply your body’s natural defence to a foreign invader such as a bacteria, toxin or virus. The cycle of inflammation is perfect in how it protects your body from these bacterial and viral invaders. However, if we chronically expose the body to injury by toxins or foods the human body was never designed to process, a condition occurs called chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation is just as harmful as acute inflammation is beneficial.
What thoughtful person would willfully expose himself repeatedly to foods or other substances that are known to cause injury to the body? Well, smokers perhaps, but at least they made that choice willfully.
The rest of us have simply followed the recommended mainstream diet that is low in fat and high in polyunsaturated fats and carbohydrates, not knowing we were causing repeated injury to our blood vessels. This repeated injury creates chronic inflammation leading to heart disease, stroke, diabetes and obesity.
Let me repeat that: The injury and inflammation in our blood vessels is caused by the low fat diet recommended for years by mainstream medicine.
What are the biggest culprits of chronic inflammation? Quite simply, they are the overload of simple, highly processed carbohydrates (sugar, flour and all the products made from them) and the excess consumption of omega-6 vegetable oils, like soybean, corn, and sunflower oil that are found in many processed foods.
Take a moment to visualize rubbing a stiff brush repeatedly over soft skin until it becomes quite red and nearly bleeding – you kept this up several times a day, every day for five years. If you could tolerate this painful brushing, you would have a bleeding, swollen infected area that became worse with each repeated injury. This is a good way to visualize the inflammatory process that could be going on in your body right now.
Regardless of where the inflammatory process occurs, externally or internally, it is the same. I have peered inside thousands upon thousands of arteries. A diseased artery looks as if someone took a brush and scrubbed repeatedly against its wall. Several times a day, every day, the foods we eat create small injuries compounding into more injuries, causing the body to respond continuously and appropriately with inflammation.
While we savor the tantalizing taste of a sweet roll, our bodies respond alarmingly as if a foreign invader arrived declaring war. Foods loaded with sugars and simple carbohydrates, or processed with omega-6 oils for long shelf life, have been the mainstay of the American diet for six decades. These foods have been slowly poisoning everyone.
How does eating a simple sweet roll create a cascade of inflammation to make you sick?
Imagine spilling syrup on your keyboard and you have a visual of what occurs inside the cell. When we consume simple carbohydrates such as sugar, blood sugar rises rapidly. In response, your pancreas secretes insulin whose primary purpose is to drive sugar into each cell where it is stored for energy. If the cell is full and does not need glucose, it is rejected to avoid extra sugar gumming up the works.
When your full cells reject the extra glucose, blood sugar rises producing more insulin and the glucose converts to stored fat.
What does all this have to do with inflammation? Blood sugar is controlled in a very narrow range. Extra sugar molecules attach to a variety of proteins that in turn injure the blood vessel wall. This repeated injury to the blood vessel wall sets off inflammation. When you spike your blood sugar level several times a day, every day, it is exactly like taking sandpaper to the inside of your delicate blood vessels.
While you may not be able to see it, rest assured it is there. I saw it in over 5,000 surgical patients spanning 25 years who all shared one common denominator — inflammation in their arteries.
Let’s get back to the sweet roll. That innocent looking goody not only contains sugars, it is baked in one of many omega-6 oils such as soybean. Chips and fries are soaked in soybean oil; processed foods are manufactured with omega-6 oils for longer shelf life. While omega-6’s are essential – they are part of every cell membrane controlling what goes in and out of the cell – they must be in the correct balance with omega-3’s.
If the balance shifts by consuming excessive omega-6, the cell membrane produces chemicals called cytokines that directly cause inflammation.
Today’s mainstream American diet has produced an extreme imbalance of these two fats. The ratio of imbalance ranges from 15:1 to as high as 30:1 in favor of omega-6. That’s a tremendous amount of cytokines causing inflammation. In today’s food environment, a 3:1 ratio would be optimal and healthy.
To make matters worse, the excess weight you are carrying from eating these foods creates overloaded fat cells that pour out large quantities of pro-inflammatory chemicals that add to the injury caused by having high blood sugar. The process that began with a sweet roll turns into a vicious cycle over time that creates heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes and finally, Alzheimer’s disease, as the inflammatory process continues unabated.
There is no escaping the fact that the more we consume prepared and processed foods, the more we trip the inflammation switch little by little each day. The human body cannot process, nor was it designed to consume, foods packed with sugars and soaked in omega-6 oils.
There is but one answer to quieting inflammation, and that is returning to foods closer to their natural state. To build muscle, eat more protein. Choose carbohydrates that are very complex such as colorful fruits and vegetables. Cut down on or eliminate inflammation-causing omega-6 fats like corn and soybean oil and the processed foods that are made from them.
One tablespoon of corn oil contains 7,280 mg of omega-6; soybean contains 6,940 mg. Instead, use olive oil or butter from grass-fed beef.
Animal fats contain less than 20% omega-6 and are much less likely to cause inflammation than the supposedly healthy oils labelled polyunsaturated. Forget the “science” that has been drummed into your head for decades. The science that saturated fat alone causes heart disease is non-existent. The science that saturated fat raises blood cholesterol is also very weak. Since we now know that cholesterol is not the cause of heart disease, the concern about saturated fat is even more absurd today.
The cholesterol theory led to the no-fat, low-fat recommendations that in turn created the very foods now causing an epidemic of inflammation. Mainstream medicine made a terrible mistake when it advised people to avoid saturated fat in favor of foods high in omega-6 fats. We now have an epidemic of arterial inflammation leading to heart disease and other silent killers.
What you can do is choose whole foods your grandmother served and not those your mom turned to as grocery store aisles filled with manufactured foods. By eliminating inflammatory foods and adding essential nutrients from fresh unprocessed food, you will reverse years of damage in your arteries and throughout your body from consuming the typical American diet.
Dr. Dwight Lundell is the past Chief of Staff and Chief of Surgery at Banner Heart Hospital , Mesa , AZ. His private practice, Cardiac Care Center was in Mesa, AZ. Recently Dr. Lundell left surgery to focus on the nutritional treatment of heart disease. He is the founder of Healthy Humans Foundation that promotes human health with a focus on helping large corporations promote wellness. He is also the author of The Cure for Heart Disease and The Great Cholesterol Lie.
For the past 3 years, I have tested almost every one of my patients for the MTHFR mutation (MTHFR = methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase – I will explain more about it as you read, so please don’t give up yet.)
Over this time, I have found the MAJORITY of my patients – about 75% – have at least a single MTHFR mutation and upwards of 40% of my patients have a double mutation (either “heterozygous” (one of each) A1298C & C677T or “homozygous C” (two C677T) or “homozygous A” (two A1298C).
The other doctors in my office also find similar percentages amongst their adult patients. (Many research journals confirm similar frequencies, but often only test one or the other mutation and thus effectively minimize the prevalence and the impact). So this is a very common mutation and we have a lot of patients who want to understand more about it. So this post is for them, and maybe also for you too.
What does the MTHFR mutation do? Having a MTHFR mutation means that the enzyme that converts folic acid into it’s activated form (5-MTHF) acts in a sluggish manner. The more mutations, the more sluggish the conversion to the activated form. Having two defects at the same point (double A or double C mutation) makes it more sluggish than just having one mutation or havin one of each mutation. As taught in basic chemistry, enzymes are the “rate limiting factor” to any biochemical reaction. Thus when an enzyme is sluggish, the biochemical reaction that relies upon it occurs slower than it should. When one pathway is working slower than others, the other pathways that depend upon it either back up or find a detour to shunt their excess product. Similar to what you may see on a highway, detour pathways are usually not as efficient, using more energy (ATP), and are prone to back ups, often causing new problems to be managed.
The MTHFR enzyme metabolizes folic acid into 5-MTHF, needed to combine with homocysteine to break it down and to facilitate methylation processes in the body.
Thus, what is often seen with MTHFR mutations are: elevated homocysteine levels and defective methylation.*
High homocysteine is associated with increased heart disease risk, strokes and blood clots. When the MTHFR mutation is correctly supported through vitamin supplementation (nutritionally bypassing the mutated enzyme and redirecting the pathway with B12 and sometimes P5P), homocysteine levels decrease and patients see results clinically.
[*Homocysteine levels will often be normal even in the face of homozygous MTHFR mutations. I see this occuring frequently in children, whose homocysteine levels typically are much lower than adults (homocysteines of 4-6) whereas normal adult levels are 8. Thus a normal homocysteine does not at all promise a normal MTHFR genetic profile. Homocysteine levels can be elevated in people who have B12 deficiency, as B12 is a cofactor in the breakdown of homocysteine. Thus high homocysteines do not promise MTHFR mutations either.]
Methylation is required for many processes in the body, from breaking down histamine, seratonin, and dopamine to turning DNA on and off. Consequently, having a defective methylation capability is associated with psychiatric illnesses, such as schizophrenia, anxiety, depression and bipolar, as well as autoimmunity disorders, ADD, autism, spina bifida, Down’s syndrome, miscarriages, and cancer. Defective methylation can come from not having the 5-MTHF or not having enough B12, so the disorders and symptoms associated with the MTHFR mutations often overlap with those due to B12 deficiency, such as anemia. Many may simultaneously have deficiencies in both.
As B12 helps to redirect the detour to the more efficient pathway, I always recommend that my patients with MTHFR mutations take both 5-MTHF and B12.
While I don’t test every one of my patients for the MTHFR mutation, I certainly try to test everyone who has a family history of cardiovascular disease (heart disease, stroke, blood clots), psychiatric illness, autoimmune disorders, spinal cord defects, cancer or miscarriages. As these disorders are all too common, this explains why I end up ordering MTHFR testing, as well as B12 levels, on the vast majority of my patients.
I find that knowing your MTHFR status is far more empowering than it is scary. Rather than keeping your head in the sand, it allows you to provide your body with what it needs to function most efficiently and hopefully prevent disease. Finding that you have a mutation, or even two, also encourages you to get your other family members tested.
Parents and siblings may likely also carry this mutation and often benefit greatly from the additional knowledge and support.
To watch some basic videos explaining more clearly the affects of MTHFR mutations, watch these 4 videos taken from research from Dr. Amy Yasko, PhD, naturopath and scientific researcher :
To review MTHFR research, see this pamphlet made by Thorne and go to Dr. Ben Lynch’s site MTHFR.net where he has many listed.
(or conversely, Giving Your child Tylenol May Increase Your Child’s Risk of Asthma by 40%)
“Until future studies document the safety of this drug, children with asthma or at risk for asthma should avoid the use of acetominophen” (Tylenol) – pulmonologist John T. McBride MD.
In a recent article, published in the online Pediatrics journal on Nov 7, 2011, written by pulmonologist John T. McBride MD, he describes multiple studies done in the past 10 + years that support the association between tylenol use and the development and severity of asthma.
“A growing number of studies have documented such a strong association between acetominophen exposure and asthma that it is possible that much of the dramatic increase in childhood asthma over the past 30 years has been related to the use of acetominophen.”
“As a pediatric pulmonologist, I am entrusted with the care of many asthmatic children and, at some level, with the respiratory health of all children in my area. Given this role, I must decide when and how to act on the possibility that acetominophen is detrimental to asthmatic children. Considering currently available data, I now recommend that any child with asthma or a family history of asthma avoid using acetominophen.”
Dr. McBride goes to explain that “the metabolism of acetominophen provides a biologically plausibe explanation for causation: depletion in airway mucosal glutathione that could contribute to vulnerability to oxidant stress.”
2 hypotheses as to how acetominophen may contribute to the prevelence or the severity of asthma:
- taking acetominophen increases airway inflammation contributing to the severity and frequency of symptoms
- those exposed to acetominophen in utero or in the first year of life might be more likely to develop asthma later in childhood
The most powerful study that he describes is that of a huge multi-location study, (122 centers in 54 countries, with each site enrolling at least 1000 children.) In this study, they consistently found a dose dependent increase in prevalence and severity of asthma. Furthermore, the “association between asthma and acetominophen was identified at almost all sites regardless of geography, culture, or stage of economic development.”
In this study, they estimated that if children no longer were exposed to acetominophen, there may be upwards of a 40% decrease in childhood asthma.
Other pediatric studies suggesting an increased risk of childhood asthma associated with acetominophen use have been reported from Ethiopia to New Zealand. Many adult studies in the US and in England show similar results in adults as well. A few even compared the effects of other analgesics and none found any association between asthma with aspirin or other non-steroidals, like ibuprofen.
“The possibility that a measure as simple as limiting acetominophen use might result in so great a decrease in the suffering of children throughout the world is both sobering and exciting.”
“What considerations can guide a clinician faced with the possibility that acetominophen exposure is detrimental to children with asthma when causation has not been incontrovertibly established? The ethical principle of nonmaleficence (“primum non nocere” [... First, do no harm]) can be helpful: in considering the likelihood of benefit and the risk of harm of any therapy, physicians should give particular weight to avoid harm.”
“In my opinion, the balance between the likely risks of benefits of acetominophen has shifted”
“At present … I need further studies not to prove that acetominophen is dangerous but, rather, to prove that it is safe.”
Personally, I think if we took this “first, do no harm” philosophy with all medications and vaccinations, the world would be a far better and healthier place.
This post goes out to all those new parents whom I don’t get to see much since I made the change out of primary care. I so miss seeing your babies and helping to guide you each step of the way. This is also in memory of A.S., a baby boy that I cared for who died of SIDS.
For some people, the idea of leaving their baby alone in a crib is inconceivable, while for others the idea of sleeping with a baby is too worrisome. While the American Academy of Pediatrics discourages co-sleeping due to studies that suggest an increased risk of SIDS, there are parents who are going to sleep with their children regardless of this data. This article is to educate those parents so to minimize the potential risks co-sleeping.
There are many groups and cultures that support co-sleeping explaining it to be safer and better for bonding. Ultimately, the choice to share your bed with your child or let them sleep alone is your decision, and your’s alone. The below recommendations will help to educate you to the risks of co-sleeping and provide ways to limit the danger.
Here is an example, described in one British study, of a typical sleeping position which was found to be characteristic of breast feeding mothers and their infants:
“The mother spontaneously adopted a distinctive lateral position facing the infant, with her knees drawn up under the infant’s feet and her upper arm positioned above the infant’s head. This position facilitates the baby’s easy access to mother’s breasts, and babies orient themselves towards their mother’s breasts for most of the night.”
This position provides several safety benefits:
- the baby is flat on the mattress on his/her back, away from pillows
- the baby is constrained by the mother’s knees and arm so that it can’t move up or down the bed
- the mother controls the height of bed covers over the baby
- it is very difficult for the baby to be rolled on by either parent, as the mother’s elbow and knees are in the way
- the mother is close enough to monitor the baby’s temperature and breathing continually.
When sleeping with an infant, always sleep facing your infant, with the above description being the ideal position, keeping your baby close to your face and chest. Babies should be dressed in sleep sacks so to avoid using adult blankets for babies. Furthermore, to avoid accidentally pulling adult covers over your baby’s head, I recommend parents dress themselves warmly enough to keep their own blankets at their own waist level. When possible, I highly recommend breast feeding, as well, for many benefits, including a decreased risk of SIDS.
Rules regarding co-sleeping:
- Always use a firm mattress for bed sharing. Soft mattresses can allow baby to accidentally roll over causing suffocation. If your mattress is soft, consider using a sleep box or bassinet that attaches to the side of the bed instead.
- Make sure all bedding fits snuggly on the mattress. Fitted sheets that come loose could cover baby’s face.
- Make sure mattress is flush against head and footboards. If there are any gaps baby could become lodged between headboard/footboard and mattress and cause suffocation.
- Always place baby to sleep on her back if co-sleeping. This has been shown to reduce the risk of SIDS.
- Never leave an infant or toddler unattended on an adult bed. Co-sleeping or family bed sharing consists of an adult and a child. Babies can roll off of beds (even when using a co-sleeping device), can become tangled in blankets, or otherwise need the attention of an adult. I recommend babies not be left unattended in the early months.
- Never let your baby sleep on a water bed or on a couch. Water beds and couches are associated with suffocation. If your baby will sleep at another person’s home who does not have a crib, never let them sleep on a couch or sofa. Bring your own crib or let them sleep in a box. Never even put a baby on a waterbed.
- Never sleep next to your baby if you are intoxicated or have been using drugs, are taking medications, are overly tired or in any other way feel that your ability to be aroused could be affected.
- Do NOT sleep with your baby if you currently smoke. This has been associated with a higher incidence of SIDS.
- Never let another sibling sleep next to your baby. Children sleep deeply and may roll over on baby. A baby is best placed next to Mom or Dad only.
- Avoid adding railings or putting furniture next to the side of your bed. Baby could become lodged next to railing or furniture and suffocate
- Avoid pushing your bed against a wall. Baby could also be lodged between the bed and wall causing suffocation.
- Avoid over-dressing your baby. Overheating is also associated with an increased risk of SIDS.
- Avoid strings or ties on night clothes or blankets. These could cause strangulation. Be sure to remove toys or other objects from bed before sleep time, to avoid suffocation.
- If you have very long hair wear it in a pony tail or braid it. Long hair could cause suffocation or strangulation.
Make Your Body a Fortress and Keep the Flu Away
By Katherine Erlich, M.D.
Everywhere you go, you hear everyone from teachers to politicians saying “wash your hands,” “use hand sanitizer when you can’t wash,” “cough into your arm,” and “don’t come to work or school if you are sick.” While this advice is completely appropriate, these well-intentioned individuals are missing a very important part of the equation to prevent the flu and other illnesses.
Why do we get sick? Many people think it is because of all the “bugs” that surround us. These people are fearful of others who are sick believing that illness comes from outside. While it is medical fact that bacteria, viruses, and fungi are the cause of infections, it is our less than healthy bodies that allow them in. Why does one child catch colds all the time, while another can go a whole season without a single runny nose? If a person’s body is truly healthy, then it is like a fortress, not allowing itself to become infected.
So, how do we make our bodies a fortress?
A simple way to start is to focus on increasing those things that will be good for our bodies, while removing those things that are toxic. No matter how much good we put into our bodies, it cannot heal if we are constantly exposing it to imbalances, threats and toxins.
Here are some steps you can take to help your family become better infection fighters:
Eat whole foods. Whole foods are as close to nature as possible. The less processed the foods, the better they are. Eat at least 5 servings of fruits and vegetables each day. Other examples of whole foods are nuts, seeds, eggs, meats, fish and whole grains. Look for a variety of colors in your foods.
Buy organic. Organic foods are higher in nutrients and trace minerals, and free from pesticides, fungicides, and synthetic fertilizer. Cows raised on organic farms are healthier, not given antibiotics, and are not exposed to growth hormone. Synthetic hormones can increase rates of cancer and have effects on growing children such as earlier puberty.
Decrease all fast food and fried foods. Fast food and fried foods are high in trans fats and omega 6 fatty acids, and low in nutrients. Shocking to some, school lunches are usually quite unhealthy, much closer to fast food than being a nutritious boost for children’s brains. The quantity of saturated fat and calories in a school lunch is far too high, and the quantity of whole foods is minimal. Limit school lunches to once a week at most.
Limit sugar. Sugar consumption has a significant detrimental effect on our immune systems, and children eat far more sugar than adults realize. Sugar is found in virtually every processed food, as well as in many foods that many parents think to be healthy, such as chocolate milk, juice, cereal, ketchup, salad dressings, and granola bars. For five hours after eating sugar, our immune systems are challenged making it easier for viruses and bacteria to attack our bodies.[i] Sugar also inhibits the body’s absorption of many vitamins and minerals. Did you realize that sugar also affects blood vessels and increases the risk of heart attack? The American Heart Association recommends a daily sugar limit for heart health: 25mg/day for women, 37mg/day for men.[ii] Extrapolating that to children, would suggest no more than 15mg of added sugar per day – that’s about 4 tsp, the amount in a ½ can of pop. Look at labels and stop buying foods that have sugar, high fructose corn syrup, corn syrup, glucose, sucrose, or fructose in the first three ingredients. Natural sweetners like molasses, honey, Sucanat, and natural cane juice are better to use than processed white sugar in that they don’t leach our bodies of nutrients. Avoid artificial sugar substitutes as well as these are toxins. Stevia is the one exception as it truly is from a natural source, but still only advised in moderation.
Drink plenty of water. Water is essential to all living things. Water helps to hydrate and cleanse our bodies. Filtered and alkaline water is the healthiest. Even 100% fruit juice is full of sugars, devoid of most nutrients, and potentially high in pesticides. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a maximum of 4 oz of juice a day[iii] (one small juice box) and does not suggest a recommended minimum. One of the best techniques for families, regarding pop, juice, and sugar drinks, is to just not buy it. Don’t have it in your home. If it is not there, they can’t drink it. Remember that you are your child’s best role model and if you want them to do something, you must do it too.
Increase your vitamin D level, because vitamin D deficiency decreases immunity.[iv] We get vitamin D from the sun or from a food source such as cod liver oil. 1 tsp of cod liver oil provides 400iu vitamin D/tsp, which is the RDA. A person must drink 32 of milk to get the same 400iu, making dairy a poor source of vitamin D. Many people need even more vitamin D to raise their level into a sufficient or ideal range to increase their immunity and to prevent chronic illness. This is especially true in the winter.
Increase your intake of omega 3 fatty acids. An imbalance of omega 3 to omega 6 ratio causes inflammation[v], increasing our susceptibility to illness. The standard American diet is very high in poor quality omega 6s and low in omega 3s. Cod liver oil and flax seed oil are excellent sources of omega 3 fatty acids. Other foods that are high in omega 3 fatty acids include grass fed beef, raw nuts and seeds, and fish. Since fish are so contaminated, children should not eat fish more than once a week, further limiting tuna and catfish due to their high levels of toxins. Smaller fish like sardines and anchovies are the safest. Examples of good quality omega 6 fatty acids include organic sunflower oil and evening primrose oil.
Take probiotics daily. As reported in the journal, Pediatrics[vi], giving children a daily probiotic has been shown to be a safe and effective way to reduce the incidence and duration of fever, runny nose, and cough, as well as decreasing the need for antibiotics. For more information, please see my post on probiotics.
Homeopathic remedies, like oscillicoccinum, are helpful in prevention of the flu, as well as when begun at first sign of illness.[vii]
Think before allowing your family to be injected with new vaccines. Since we have a pandemic status, the H1N1 vaccine has been pushed through without the usually degree of required testing. Especially concerning is the push for children and pregnant women to be vaccinated. How can they know the H1N1 vaccine is safe for unborn fetuses after such limited testing? The last time we were in a similar situation, in the 1970’s, the vaccine caused far more harm and deaths than did the feared illness itself.
Make health a priority. Start with small changes and add more over time. Remember that each step you take will help your family be stronger and more able to fight off infection. Realize that each healthy choice made now will make a huge difference to your families’ future health, happiness, and longevity. Start today!
[i] 1. W. Ringsdorf, E. Cheraskin, and E. Ramsey. “Sucrose, Neutrophilic Phagocytosis and Resistance to Disease.” Dental Survey 52, No. 12 1976, pp. 46-48
2. Ernet Kijak, George Foust, and Ralph Steinman. “Relationship of Blood Sugar Level and Leukocytic Phagocytosis.” Southern California State Dental Association Journal 32, No. 8, September 1964
3. Bernstein, L et al. “Depression of Lymphocyte Transformation Following Oral Glucose Ingestion.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1997; 30: 613.
4. A. Sanchez, et al. “Role of Sugars in Human Neutrophilic Phagocytosis.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Nov 1973, pp. 1180-1184
[ii] American Heart Association – Circulation 2009;120;1011-1020
[iii] AAP – PEDIATRICS Vol. 107 No. 5 May 2001, pp. 1210-121
[iv] AAP – PEDIATRICS Vol 122; 5; November 2008, pp.1142-1148
[v] JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2009 Jul-Aug;33(4):390-6.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2007 Nov-Dec;77(5-6):327-35
[vi] AAP – PEDIATRICS Vol. 107 No. 5 May 2001, pp. 1210-121
[vii] 1. Kleijnen J., Knipschild P., Riet G., Clinical trials of homeopathy, British Medical Journal, 1991.
2. Boissel J.P., Cucherat M., Haugh M., Gauthier E., Overview of data from homeopathic medicine trials : report on the efficacy of homeopathic interventions over no treatment or placebo, Report to the European Commission, 1996.
3. Linde K., Clausius N., Ramirez G., Melchart D., Eitel F., Hedges V.L., Jonas W.B., Are the clinical effects of homeopathy placebo effects ? A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials, The Lancet, 1997.
4. Shang A., Egger M.,Are the clinical effects of homeopathy placebo effects ? Comparative study of placebo-controlled trials of homeopathy and allopathy, The Lancet, august 27, 2005
5. The Lancet, december 17/24/31, 2005
Disclaimer: Some products mentioned have not been evaluated by the FDA. They are intended to benefit normal structure and function and are not intended to cure, treat, or prevent any disease.